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Research Integrity


The University of Cambridge expects that free and informed consent will normally be obtained from all human participants in research at an appropriate point in the research process. Where it is not possible, due to the nature of the research or participants, it is normally expected that the project will undergo the appropriate ethical review process to approve the use of participant data without free and informed consent.

Failure to obtain free and informed consent may unnecessarily restrict your ability to use data, publish results and share data.

While it is sometimes possible to obtain oral consent for research (e.g. where data is collected through audio or video recordings) it is normally most appropriate to obtain consent through provision of a participant information sheet (PIS) and consent form in either written or electronic form.

As part of the University's guidance for researchers on the use of personal data, guidance has been provided to help with the preparation and use of PIS and consent forms. For this guidance please see: